Steven M. Szczepanek

Atwater Laboratory, Room A-110 (Lab A-144)
Telephone: (860) 486-8101

Courses Taught

  • PVS 3700: Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • PVS 5632: Vaccines: Mechanisms of Immune Protection

Research Interests

Impaired Immunity in Sickle Cell Disease

Early mortality and recurrent hospitalizations due to invasive pneumococcal disease (Streptococcus pneumoniae infection) are common for people with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Frequent pneumococcal vaccinations are administered to SCD patients in the US, reducing infections and increasing patient life expectancy.  Unfortunately, recent research indicates that the currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are not as effective in patients with SCD, which is associated with low antibody titers after vaccination. Our group has shown that mice with SCD are not protected from infection after pneumococcal vaccination. Much like in SCD patients, we correlated this lack of protection with short-lived pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination.  An important finding from this work is that antibody titers do not recover after booster shots are given to SCD mice, indicating that there is a deficiency in the generation of both B-cell memory and long-lived plasma cells (which produce antibodies). Further compounding this problem, it has been shown that protective pneumococcal vaccine responses require specialized B-cells in the spleen and peritoneal cavity called B-1 B-cells, and we have previously shown that SCD mice have dramatically reduced numbers of B-1 cells in their spleens. We also observed reduced percentages of these cells in the blood of SCD patients when compared to healthy control subjects. Hence, we have found cellular and functional correlates in the SCD mouse model that may explain the reduced effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines and increased susceptibility to infection in people with SCD. We are currently working on understanding the basic mechanism of impaired pneumococcal immunity in SCD mice, with the aim of developing new vaccines and therapeutics to overcome this problem.    

Development of a Vaccine for Walking Pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human respiratory pathogen and the etiological agent of many cases of bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Infection with this bacterium can also cause and/or exacerbate other diseases, including asthma. Diagnosis is difficult as most medical laboratories do not screen for this pathogen, given that quick and inexpensive tests are not readily available. Common first-line β-lactam antibiotics are ineffective at treatmenting M. pneumoniae infection as this bacterium lacks a cell wall. Consequently, this pathogen is often overlooked during diagnosis of affected individuals, and common treatments do not target the source of the disease. This results in considerable economic and societal hardships due to lost and ineffective work/school time, making this pathogen a burden to public health. Unfortunately,  several vaccine trials conducted in military personnel during the 1960s using inactivated bacteria resulted in minimal efficacy, and in some instances vaccination appeared to exacerbate disease upon subsequent challenge with virulent M. pneumoniae.  We are working with the Geary lab in Pathobiology to overcome this problem and rationally design a new M. pneumoniae vaccine that lacks the safety issues that have plagued the field for decades.



Peer-reviewed Publications

  1. Jiang C, Gavitt TD, Szczepanek SM. "House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation is Not Exacerbated in Sickle Cell Disease Mice." Int Arch Allergy Immunol. [in press].
  2. Licitra D, Quinn DP, Reeder JE, Gavitt T, Dickson J, Hess B, Mangold BJ, Tuttle AD, Rosas-Rosas A, Frasca Jr. S, Szczepanek SM. "Snake Fungal Disease in Colubridae Snakes in Connecticut, 2015-2017" J. Wildl Dis. [in press].
  3. Roberts S, Metzger DW, Szczepanek SM. “Influenza Vaccination Protects Against Pandemic H1N1  Infection in Sickle Cell Disease Mice.” Viral Immunol. 2018 Apr 24.
  4. Cotte C, Szczepanek SM. "Peritoneal B-1b and B-2 B-cells confer long-term protection from pneumococcal serotype 3 infection after vaccination with Prevnar-13 and are defective in sickle cell disease mice." Vaccine. 2017 Jun 16;35(28):3520-3522.
  5. Beaudet J, Tulman ER, Pflaum K, Liao X, Kutish GF, Szczepanek SM, Silbart LK, Geary SJ. "Transcriptional Profiling of the Chicken Tracheal Response to Virulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strain Rlow." Infect Immun. 2017 Sep 20;85(10).
  6. Szczepanek SM, Roberts S, Rogers K, Cotte C, Adami AJ, Bracken SJ, Salmon S, Secor Jr. ER, Thrall RS, Andemariam B, Metzger DW. “Poor Long-term Efficacy of Prevnar-13 in Sickle Cell Disease Mice is Associated with an Inability to Sustain Pneumococcal-specific Antibody Titers”. PLoS One. Feb 24, 2016. PMID:26910228
  7. Bracken SJ, Adami AJ, Szczepanek SM, Ehsan M, Natarajan P, Guernsey LA, Rafti E, Matson AP, Schramm CM, Thrall RS. “Long-term exposure to house dust mite antigen leads to suppression of allergic airway sisease sespite persistent lung inflammation”. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015;166(4):243-58. PMID:25924733
  8. Spotlight Article: Szczepanek SM, Boccaccio M, Pflaum K, Liao X, Geary SJ. “Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Glycerol Metabolism is Dispensable for the Virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the Tracheas of Chickens” Infect Immun. 2014 Dec; 82(12):4915-4920. PMID:25156740
  9. Secor ER Jr., Szczepanek SM, Matson A, Rafti E, Guernsey L, Natarajan P, McNamera JT, Schramm CM, Thrall RS, Silbart LK. “Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells”. 2013;2013:702196. PMCID: PMC3870104
  10. Bautista EJ, Zinski J, Szczepanek SM, Johnson E, Tulman ER, Ching W, Geary SJ, Srivastava R. “Semi-automated curation of metabolic models via flux balance analysis: a case study with Mycoplasma gallisepticum”. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013 Sept;9(9):e1003208. PMCID: PMC3764002
  11. Szczepanek SM, Secor ER Jr., Bracken SJ, Guernsey L, Rafti E, Matson A, Thrall RS, Andemariam B. “Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice have High Mortality and Dysregulated Immune Responses After Vaccination”.Pediatr Res. 2013 Aug;74(2):141-7. PMID:23728384
  12. Szczepanek SM, McNamara JT, Secor ER, Natarajan P, Guernsey LA, Miller L, Ballesteros E, Jellison E, Thrall RS, Andemariam B. “Splenic Morphologic Alterations are Accompanied by Altered Baseline Immunity in a Mouse Model of Sickle Cell Disease”. Am J Pathol. 2012. 181(5):1725-34. PMCID: PMC3483810
  13. Secor ER, Szczepanek SM, Singh A, Guernsey L, Natarajan P, Rezaul K, Han DK, Thrall RS, Silbart LK. “LC-MS/MS Identification of a Bromelain Peptide Biomarker from Ananas comosus Merr”. 2012;2012:548486. PMCID: PMC3467939
  14. Tulman ER, Liao X, Szczepanek SM, Ley DH, Kutish GF, Geary SJ. “Extensive variation in surface lipoprotein gene content in a novel Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain associated with the North American house finch epizootic”. Microbiology 2012. 158(Pt 8):2073-88. PMID: 22628486
  15. Szczepanek SM, Barrette RW, Rood D, Alejo D, Silbart LK. “Xenoepitope Substitution Avoids Deceptive Imprinting and Broadens the Immune Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus”. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012. 19(4):461-7. PMCID: PMC3318270
  16. Szczepanek SM, Majumder S, Sheppard, ES, Liao X, Rood D, Tulman ER, Wyand S, Krause DC, Silbart LK, Geary SJ. “Vaccination of BALB/c Mice with an Avirulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae P30 Mutant Results in Disease Exacerbation Upon Challenge with a Virulent Strain”. Infect Immun. 2012. 80(3):1007-14. PMCID: PMC3294651
  17. May M, Szczepanek SM, Frasca S. Jr., Gates AE, Demcovitz D, Moneypenny C, Brown DR, Geary, SJ. “Effect of Sialidase Knockout and Complementation on Mycoplasma gallisepticum Cytadherence and Virulence”.Vet Micro. 2012. 157(1-2):91-5. PMID: 22197303
  18. Challa S, Szczepanek SM, Rood D, Barrette RW, Silbart LK. “Bacterial Toxin Fusion Proteins Elicit Mucosal Immunity Against a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen When Administered Intranasally to Guinea Pigs”. Advances in Virology. 2011; 2011:713769. PMCID: PMC3265312
  19. Barrette RW, Szczepanek SM, Rood D, Challa S, Avery N, Vajdy M, Kramer E, Rodriguez L, Silbart LK. “Use of inactivated E. coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine”. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Nov;18(11):1996-8. PMID:21918121
  20. Szczepanek SM, Frasca S Jr., Schumacher VL, Liao X, Padula M, Djordjevic SP, Geary SJ. “Identification of Lipoprotein MslA as a Neoteric Virulence Factor of Mycoplasma gallisepticum”. Infect Immun. 2010 78(8):3475-83. PMCID: PMC2916287
  21. Szczepanek SM, Tulman ER, Gorton TS, Liao X, Lu Z, Zinski J, Aziz F, Frasca S Jr., Kutish GF, Geary SJ.    “Comparative Genomic Analyses of Attenuated Strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum”. Infect Immun. 2010 78(4):1760-71. PMCID: PMC2849401

Non-peer-reviewed Publications and Book Chapters

  1. Mollicutes: Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity” – Browning GF - Editor Chapter: Host Immune Responses to Mycoplasmas; Szczepanek SM & Silbart LK. 2nd ed., 2014, Caister Academic Press NY, NY.
  2. Szczepanek SM and Geary SJ.  “Mycoplasma gallisepticum Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cytotoxicity and Virulence: Lack of Correlation in the Natural Host”. [Published with Spotlight Article #14]. Infect Immun. 2014 Dec; 82(12):4914.
  3. Szczepanek SM and Secor ER Jr. “Echinacea; Have Translational Research Outcomes Altered the Way You Prescribe this Antibacterial and Immune-modulating Phytotherapeutic?”. Naturopathic Doctor. 2013, Feb.


  1. Naturally@UConn. May 2018.
  2. USDA Press Release. April 2017.
  3. The Daily Campus. Feburary 2016.
  4. USDA Press Release. August 2015.  
  5. Naturally@UConn. August 2015.
  6. UConn Today. June 2015.
  7. Naturally@UConn. January 2015.

Contact Us

Pathobiology and Veterinary Science
College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources
61 North Eagleville Road, Unit-3089
Telephone: (860) 486-4000
Fax: (860) 486-2794